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2020年职称英语考试《理工类》模拟试题0413
帮考网校 2020-04-13 15:48

2020年职称英语考试《理工类》考试共65题,分为单选题和多选题和判断题和计算题和简答题和不定项。小编为您整理精选模拟习题10道,附答案解析,供您考前自测提升!


1、The orangutan
Among all the animals, the ape is most like human beings. Both people and apes have the similar brain structure, the similar nerve system, and the similar kind of blood.
There are four kinds of apes: the chimpanzee (黑猩猩), the orangutan (猩猩), the gorilla (大猩猩), and the gibbon (长臂猿). They live in the deep forests and warm tropical regions of Africa and of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia.
All apes are covered with brown, reddish-brown, or black hair everywhere on their bodies except their faces, feet, and hands. Their hands each have four fingers and a thumb that helps them grip things the way our thumbs help us. But they also have a thumb on each foot instead of a big toe. Thus they can hold things with their feet also. Having short, weak legs, apes do not walk on the ground very much. However, their arms are very strong. This enables them to swing from branches and travel very quickly from tree to tree.
These animals live in small family groups that move from place to place in search of vegetables and fruits. They also eat eggs, small animals, nuts, and insects. When they are tired, they build nests in the trees. But they rarely sleep there for more than a night or two. Then they move on to look for more food.
There are some differences among the following three kids of apes. The gibbon is never more than three feet high and weight only about fourteen pounds. The gorilla grows to be six feet tall and weight up to 600 pounds. The orangutan is smaller than the gorilla. It stands three to five feet tall and weight up to 200 pounds.
Chimpanzees are the smartest of all apes. They can be taught to sit at a table and eat, to dress themselves, and to do things that human children can do.
What does the first paragraph tell us?
【单选题】

A.The ape looks like human beings most.

B.People and the ape think alike.

C.People and the ape behave alike.

D.The ape is the most intellectual animal in the world.

正确答案:A

答案解析:由文章首句可知,在自然界中,猿与人最相似,故选A。

2、Have you talked to her lately?【单选题】

A.lastly

B.finally

C.shortly

D.recently

正确答案:D

答案解析:题干大意:最近你跟她谈话了吗?画线词:lately:近来,选项中,recently:最近。lastly:最后,终于。如:Lastly, we have aggregated these laws of de mand and supply. 最后,我们把需求与供给的定律综合起来。finally:最终。如:He finally agreed to my plan. 最后他同意了我的计划。shortly:立刻。如:About 30 emergency workers died of radiation exposure shortly after the accident. 大约30个抢险工人在事故后不久死于放射线照射。

3、Halloween
Halloween is an autumn holiday that Americans celebrate every year. It means "holy evening", and it comes every October 31, the evening before All-Saints Day. It used to be thought the most wonderful night of the year. It was the night when witches and evil spirits came back on earth. People kept up many strange old customs in an effort to keep these evil things away. Farmers used to light big fires in their fields, and the farm workers and their families would walk around the fields singing old songs. Sometimes they would stop to hear the local priest offer prayers to the good spirits, and ask them to help keep the evil ones away.
Great care was taken that none of the farm animals were left in the fields. They would all be locked up safely in their stables, and over each of the stable doors a few rowan leaves would be hung. Witches and evil spirits would not go anywhere near the rowan tree.
In more recent times, Halloween has become a time for the parties, when children dress up as witches and play all kinds of special games. After the games there is often a big supper with plenty of pumpkin pie, cakes and a lot of other delicious things to eat.
But for the most part the children enjoy the fun of dressing up and playing their favorite game of "Trick or Treat". They run down each street knocking on the doors crying loudly "Trick or Treat! Money or eat!", and most people have some sweets or money ready to give them. Those that do not can expect maybe to have a tyre flattened, or their windows covered in soap. Or the children may just knock on the door and run away.
Some children think of other people on Halloween. They carry boxes for UNICEF (The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund). They ask for money to help poor children all around the world. Of course, every time they help UNICEF, they usually receive a treat for themselves, too.
Every autumn, when the vegetables are ready to eat, children pick large orange pumpkins. Then they cut faces in the pumpkins and put lights inside. It looks like there is a person looking out of the pumpkin! These lights are called jack-o'-lanterns, which means "Jack of the lantern". But in this modern age many of the pumpkins are being replaced with plastic electric ones that can be brought out each year.
Which of the following statements about Halloween is FALSE, according to the text?
【单选题】

A.Halloween has become a time for parties.

B.Children dress up as witches and play special games.

C.People will enjoy a big supper with many delicious things to eat

D.Children will give sweets or money to their parents.

正确答案:D

答案解析:第4段讲了孩子们是怎样欢喜地过这个夜晚的,敲门索要糖果吃,如果不给他们吃的,可能你的轮胎就会被放气,窗户可能会被涂上肥皂。因此选项D的内容是错误的。

4、How to Interview People
Interviewing (采访) is one of those skills that you can only get better at. You will never again feel so ill at ease when you try it for the first time, and probably you'll never feel entirely comfortable trying to get from another person answers that he or she may be too shy to reveal. ______ The rest is instinct, which can all be learned with experience.
The basic tools for an interview are paper and two or three well-sharpened pencils. But keep your notebook or paper out of sight until you need it. There's nothing less likely to relax a person than the arrival of someone with a note-taking pad. Both of you need time to get to know each other. Take a while just to chat, judging what sort of person you're dealing with, getting him or her to trust you.
Never go into an interview without doing whatever homework you can. If you are interviewing a town official, know his voting record. If it's an actor, know what plays he has been in. You will not be liked if you inquire about facts that you could have learned in advance.
Many beginning interviewers are afraid that they are forcing the other person to answer questions and have no right to inquire about his personal secrets. This fear is almost 103 percent unnecessary. Unless the person really hates being interviewed, he is delighted that somebody wants to interview him. Most men and women lead lives that are uninteresting, and they grasp any chance to talk to an outsider who seems eager to listen.
This doesn't necessarily mean that it will go well. In general you will be talking to people who have never been interviewed before, and they will get used to the process awkwardly, perhaps not giving you anything that you can use. Come back another day; it will go better. You will both even begin to enjoy it-proof that you aren't forcing your victim to do something he doesn't really want to.
【单选题】

A.Come back another day; it will go better.

B.But at least half of the skill is mechanical.

C.As one philosopher interviewed in the film notes, they lack irony.

D.You will not be liked if you inquire about facts that you could have learned in advance.

E.This fear is almost 100 percent unnecessary.

F.Both of you need time to get to know each other.

正确答案:B

答案解析:空句后面有“rest”,其余的就是直觉“instinct”,需要后天从经历中总结出来,所以空句毫无疑问讲的是另外一种情况,所以B就显而易见为正确答案了。

5、What Is the Coolest Gas in the Universe?
What is the coldest air temperature ever recorded on the Earth? Where was this low temperature recorded? The coldest recorded temperature on Earth was - 91℃, which occurred in Antarctica (南极洲) in 1983.
We encounter an interesting situation when we discuss temperatures in space.
Temperatures in Earth orbit actually range from about +120℃ to - 120℃. The temperature depends upon whether you are in direct sunlight or shade. Obviously, -120℃ is colder than our body can safely endure. Thank NASA science for well, de signed space suits that protect astronauts from these temperature extremes.
The space temperatures just discussed affect only our areal of the solar system. Obviously, it is hotter closer to the Sun and colder as we travel away from the Sun. Astronomers estimate temperatures at Pluto are about - 210℃. How cold is the lowest estimated temperature in the entire universe? Again, it depends upon your location. We are taught it is supposedly impossible to have a temperature below absolute zero, which is - 273℃, at which atoms do not move. Two scientists, whose names are Cornell and Wieman, have successfully cooled down a gas to a temperature barely above absolute zero. They won a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001 for their work, not a discovery, in this case.
Why is the two scientists' work so important to science?
In the 1920s, Satyendra Nath Bose was studying an interesting theory about special light particles we now call photons (光子). Bose had trouble ______ other scientists to believe his theory, so he contacted Albert Einstein. Einstein's calculations helped him theorize that atoms would behave as Bose thought—but only at very cold temperatures.
Scientists have also discovered that ultra - cold(超冷) atoms can help them make the world's atomic clocks even more accurate. These clocks are so accurate today they would only lose one second every six million years! Such accuracy will help us travel in space because distance is velocity times time 4 ( d = v×t). With the long distances involved in space travel, we need to know time as accurately as possible to get accurate distance.
【单选题】

A.forcing

B.begging

C.ordering

D.convincing

正确答案:D

答案解析:本题有一定难度,考查词义辨析,干扰项有一定的干扰。根据上下文逻辑,文章此处是说“Bose很难使其他科学家相信他的理论”,答案是D。

6、Cell Phone Lets Your Secret Out
Your cell phone holds secrets about you. Besides the names and numbers that you've programmed into it, traces of your DNA linger on the device, according to a new study.
DNA is genetic material that appears in every cell. Like your fingerprint, your DNA is unique to you- because you have an identical twin. Scientists today routinely analyze DNA in blood, saliva, or hair left behind at the scene of a crime. The results often help detectives identify criminals and their victims. Your cell phone can reveal more about you than you might think.
Meghan J. McFadden, a scientist at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, heard about a crime in which the suspect bled onto a cell phone and later dropped the device. This made her wonder whether traces of DNA lingered on cell phones even when no blood was involved. ______ she and colleague Margaret Wallace of the City University of New York analyzed the flip open phones of 10 volunteers. They used swabs to collect invisible traces of the users from two parts of the phone: the outside, where the user holds it, and the speaker, which is placed at the user's ear.
The scientists scrubbed the phones using a solution made mostly of alcohol. The aim of washing was to remove all detectable traces of DNA. The owners got their phones back for another week. Then the researchers collected the phones and repeated the swabbing of each phone once more.
The scientists discovered DNA that belonged to the phone's speaker on each of the phones. Better samples were collected from the outside of each phone, those swabs also picked up DNA that belonged to other people who had apparently also handled the phone. Surprisingly, DNA showed up even in swabs that were taken immediately after the phones were scrubbed. That suggests that washing won't remove all traces of evidence from a criminal's device. So cell phones can now be added to the list of clues that can clinch a crime scene investigation.
【单选题】

A.However

B.So

C.But

D.Nevertheless

正确答案:B

答案解析:四个选项中只有B是正确选择,连接了其前后两个句子,使其形成因果关系:她思考微量DNA是否会停留在手机上,所以,她与同事们一起对10名志愿者的翻盖手机进行了分析研究。A、C、D都是转折的意义关系。

7、It is absurd to predict that the sun will not rise tomorrow.【单选题】

A.ridiculous

B.funny

C.odd

D.foolish

正确答案:A

答案解析:题干大意:预测明天太阳不会升起是荒谬的。画线词absurd:荒谬的,和ridiculous完全是相同的意思。odd:奇怪的。funny:滑稽可笑的。foolish:愚蠢的。故答案选A。

8、Most chemical reactions of an organic compound involve only a few ofits numerous atoms; the remainder stay unchanged. 【单选题】

A.majority

B.distribution

C.rest

D.stability

正确答案:C

答案解析:remainder和rest都表示“其余、其他”;maj ority:多数、半数以上;distribution:分配物、分配;stability:稳定性、固定、牢固。

9、Some Unusual Celebrations
Some holidays are well - known all around the world. Among them are New Year's Eve celebrations. Also common are days in honor of love and friendship, like Valentine's Day. Each country has its own special holidays too, often to mark important events in its history. Schools, banks and government offices all close on days like these. _____ A few of them are really very strange.
Of course, they are not strange to the people who celebrate them. Perhaps that is because the celebrations have long traditions. Consider April Fool's Day, for example. No one knows when or why it began. Today it is celebrated in many countries—France, England and Australia, among others. On this day, people play practical jokes. Jokes are supposed to be funny, but these jokes do not make everyone laugh. The ones who laugh are the ones playing the jokes. The people they fool often get angry. Does celebrating this day make sense to you?
Dyngus Day in Poland seems strange too. On this day, it is traditional for boys to pour water over the heads of girls. Here is the strangest part, they do it to girls they like.
Other unusual celebrations take place in a single city or town. A holiday called La Tomatina is celebrated in Bunol, Spain. Every year, in late August, big trucks carry more than 200,000 pounds of tomatoes into this little town. Then begins the world-s biggest food fight. For two hours, people in the streets throw tomatoes at each other. Everyone ends up red from head to toe.
August 10 marks the start of the Puck Fair, an Irish festival with a very unusual tradition. People from the town of Killorglin go up into the mountains and catch a wild goat. They bring him back to town, put a crown on his head, and make him king for three days.
There are also some celebrations that are really strange. In the United States, sometimes one person gets an idea for a new holiday and tries to get others to accept it. Whose idea was Public Sleeping Day? That one is on February 28. It may seem strange, but it sounds like more fun than the one on February 29. That is supposed to be Toothache Day.
Do you like the idea of inventing a new holiday? If you do, then you will want to mark March 26 on your calendar. That is Make Up Your Own Holiday Day.
【单选题】

A.They bring him back to town, put a crown on his head, and make him king for three days.

B.Some of the days people celebrate, however, are less serious.

C.That is supposed to be Toothache Day.

D.Then begins the world-s biggest food fight.

E.Some people have fun imagining new holidays.

F.Jokes are supposed to be funny, but these jokes do not make everyone laugh.

正确答案:B

答案解析:本题有一定难度,但因为各个选项差异较大,还是比较容易确定答案,可采用代入法,可以发现B代入原文中,最符合上下文逻辑,是答案。

10、Meet Your Memory
Memory is something that cannot be seen, touched or weighed. It is thought to be abstract. It is a set of skills rather than an object. Neither is there a single standard for judging a good or poor memory. There are a number of different ways in which a person may have a "good" memory.
Memory is generally viewed as consisting of three stages: (1) acquisition refers to learning the material; (2) storage refers to keeping the material in the blain until it is needed; and (3) retrieval (提取) refers to getting the material back out when it is needed.
Memory consists of at least two different processes: short-term memory and long-term memory. Short-term memory has a limited capacity and a rapid forgetting rate. Its capacity can be increased by chunking (组成大块), or grouping separate bits of information into larger chunks. Long-term memory has an almost unlimited capacity.
One measure of memory is recall, which requires you to produce information by searching the memory for it. In aided recall, you are given cues (提示) to help you produce the information. In free-recall learning, you recall the material in any order; in serial learning, you recall it in the order it was presented; and in paired-associate learning, you learn pairs of words so that when the first word is given, you can recall the second word. A second measure of memory is recognition in which you do not have to produce the information from memory, but must be able to identify it when it is presented to you. In a third measure of memory, relearning, the difference between how long it took to learn the material the first time and how long it takes to learn it again indicates how much you remember. Relearning is generally a more sensitive measure of memory than is recognition because relearning shows retention (保持) while recognition does not. Recognition is generally a more sensitive measure than recall.
Grouping bits of information into larger chunks helps improve the capacity of our ______.
【单选题】

A.short-term memory

B.relearning

C.needed

D.coded

E.recognition

F.slow forgetting rate

正确答案:A

答案解析:根据题干线索词Grouping bits of information into larger chunks定位原文至第三段第三句:Its capacity can be increased by chunking (组成大块), or grouping separate bits of information into larger chunks,句中的its即指前句中的short-term memory,题干将该句由被动语态转变为主动语态。由此推知,句中画线部分即为所需添加成分,即short-term memory,A选项short-term memory属于原文复现,故A为正确答案。

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